European Parliament Assesses ICO Legal Framework

The proposal has been written by Ashley Fox — a member of the European Parliament — and called for a €8M cap on tokens sales and AML/KYC requirements. What’s remarkable about this initiative is that it would create an EU “standard” for token sales, allowing to conduct them in all the Union.

Fox stated that the proposal is meant to “make ICOs more possible and more successful,” not to impede them. Nicolas Brien — the managing director of France Digitale — said that there is a need for urgent regulation since “the market wants legitimization from every jurisdiction. In the UK it’s particularly bad, none of the banks will bank you if you have crypto.”

Brien also explained that there is a necessity for clarity about the nature of tokens and end the debate about which tokens are securities and which are utilities.

Stricter scrutiny to be expected in the EU

During the meeting, many also highlighted the need for more rigorous inspection of the ICO market due to the number of scams in the ecosystem. Laura Royle — a member of the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) — admitted seeing a “huge potential benefit in this space” in raising capital with ICOs but also wanted to point out problems like the lack of transparency, volatility, and potential for fraud.

The estimates that from 25% to 81% of ICOs may result in fraud, but exact figures are hard to establish.

No definitive decision

There has been no clear consensus in the EU parliament on how to proceed so far and amendments can be submitted by the members by September 11. Still, this is a distinct move forward in regulating the space and opening the market to less risk-prone investors.

The Bancor Hack Aftermath: How Decentralized are Exchanges?

Bancor Hacked: Stolen over $23M in Ethereum

Last year the company raised over $150 million in an ICO. Bancor’s services include a wallet with an integrated exchange service. Last week, Bancor stated that “a wallet used to update some smart contracts has been compromised. As a result, the attackers stole $12.5M in Ethereum, $1 million in NPXS Token of Pundi X and $10 million in BNT.

Bancor announced they’ve frozen the BNT, but they can’t do the same for the other tokens. The company added that it is communicating with a number of exchanges in an effort to “make it harder for the thief to liquidate” the stolen tokens. Nevertheless, it remains to be seen how successful these efforts will be.

Following the incident, Bancor suspended the exchange and undertook an investigation. The exchange has now resumed its activity, as it announced in the following tweet:

Twitter critics, including Litecoin’s creator Charlie Lee, underlined the irony that Bancor, which claims to be decentralized, responded to the hack with strategies in line with a centralized system.

Bottom line

This event has once again called into question the extent to which the Ethereum DAPPs is truly decentralized. This is because Bancor, like many other DAPP developers, has programmed the smart contracts underlying their applications to grant them some degree of authority. These include, for example, the possibility to “freeze” tokens or update smart contracts so as to change their behavior in the future.

Thus, while the infrastructure hosting the DAPPs is decentralized, the applications themselves involve so much central authority that they cannot be defined as decentralized. This is a particular problem with security, as such an architecture needs only the creator’s wallet to be compromised in order to damage the entire DAPP. In addition to this, unlike what most users expect, such a system requires trust in the creators of the application.

Decentralised exchanges remain a potential solution to many — but not all — of the problems in this area. But what we always need to know is how decentralized the exchanges really are.

Binance Suspends Trading Due to Suspicious Syscoin Transactions

The incident

A really odd trade has taken place on Binance on the Syscoin/BTC trading pair. Syscoin, an asset that usually trades for a few cents, has been successfully traded for 96 Bitcoin. That caused panic among Binance users and the broader cryptocurrency community since it could’ve been the result of a hack or a bug in the system.

Syscoin blockchain compromised?

Also, Syscoin announced that they were examining an anomaly on their chain and that they requested the exchanges to pause the trading.

It actually seems that the block number 87670 on the Syscoin blockchain has more than a billion tokens as the “Value out”. Since Syscoin is actually capped at 800 million tokens it seemed quite anomalous and there has been a lot of speculation over a possible exploitation of the chain to mint new coins. Still, after further examination, the Syscoin team found out that it was simply a single user moving 45 million tokens multiple times within the same block.

After having made sure that the chain is safe the team asked the exchanges to resume trading. Keyare, a Syscoin developer, declared:

“We saw suspicious activity and to mitigate risk, asked exchanges to halt trading while we investigated. Bittrex and Poloniex took immediate action and Binance launched their own investigation. Our tweet was accurate but misinterpreted as a “hack” by media”.

There was no exploitation of the Syscoin blockchain. There was no minting of coins. The blockchain shows this. It was a series of events that coincided with extremely odd movements in Binance. We will have an official report later today.”

Actions Undertook – User benefits

To protect the users all the API keys have been deleted (users need to generate new ones) and all irregular trades have been rolled back. Furthermore, Binance decided to offer feeless trading between 2018/07/05 – 2018/07/14 and whoever has traded during the SYS incident is invited to open a support ticket.

A 70% reimbursement on trading fees between 2018/07/05 and 2018/07/14 in the form of BNB tokens calculated using the closing price on 2018/07/14. What’s even more interesting, the report says:

“To protect the future interests of all users, Binance will create a Secure Asset Fund for Users (SAFU). Starting from 2018/07/14, we will allocate 10% of all trading fees received into SAFU to offer protection to our users and their funds in extreme cases. This fund will be stored in a separate cold wallet.”

Bottom line

It is a quite interesting incident which will have seemingly limited consequences. Binance responded quickly and if it wasn’t for such a swift reaction the consequences wouldn’t probably have been so limited.

The general market is faring quite well today with most of the top cryptocurrencies gaining value slowly but steadily and Bitcoin gaining 2.5%. The most interesting question that still remains unanswered is what caused the problem. Was it a glitch in the trading engine? Has been the Binance system hacked? Still, when those questions will be answered the issue will probably have been already solved.

Nebula-AI (NBAI): The convergence of AI and Blockchain

The blockchain space is full of projects without a clear use case and clear value, but, as we’ll see, there are also projects which are quite the opposite. Nebula-AI (NBAI) is creating a decentralized AI computing platform which will make AI DAPPS (which they call DAI Apps) a reality. The first product and demo that they released is Quant-AI: A cutting-edge trading price prediction tool. In this article, we’ll dive into the specifics of this project and take a look at Quant AI and the broader concept of DAI Apps.

Thanks to the use of GPUs and parallel computing for algorithms like machine learning (ML) AI has finally become widely viable. This created a huge industry which infiltrated into our daily lives. Every time you are talking to your virtual personal assistant (Alexa, Siri or Google assistant) or Facebook suggests you which friends to tag in your photos, AI is working behind the scenes.

AI is more than one of the many buzzwords we hear in the tech world. AI is often proposed as some sort of panacea for all sort of problems, which it is not. Still, its potential is so great that the estimated value for the AI market worldwide in 2018 is over $7 billion, in 2020 it is expected to grow to $17 B and in 2025 it is estimated to hit $90 B.

This technology is already overwhelmingly used in many industries. In medicine it is used to predict heart attacks or diagnose mental health problems from speech patterns (and AI actually seems to manage both those things better than human experts), in finance it is used for quantitative financial analysis and price prediction (an example of this is Quant AI itself) and the list could go on. AI is not only Alexa and Google Assistant, it is going to be a really important part of our modern lives way sooner than most expect.

Current issues of the AI industry

There are some big issues with how AI services work nowadays which Nebula-AI is trying to solve. Before explaining how those are being addressed let’s take a look at what are the problems that the AI space is currently struggling with.

Centralization and control

Since the infrastructure, which provides the service is completely centralized, it is also completely dependent upon the hosting company. Cloud providers such as Google or Amazon could decide to cease offering their services at any given moment. That means there is no guarantee that the service that you are using will exist in the future. This could jeopardize your business processes.

Data privacy

Since AI development is linked to cloud services the data is completely centralized. Giving too much of your data to one single company can lead to great problems when this data is exploited. This topic has been brought into mainstream discussion lately after Cambridge Analytica has used the data it obtained from Facebook to influence the outcome of the US elections. This incident gives great insight into how broad the consequences of Big Data misuse can be.

Lack of talent and a high barrier to entry

This technology is demonstrating its ever-growing potential and its development is actually rapid, but it could be exponential. Two major issues are slowing down the development of this space: the lack of AI talent and the high cost of AI development.

The lack of talent in this space means that the top talent is reportedly paid up to 1.9 million dollars. No startup can afford to pay that much. This means that only big, established and well-funded companies can afford to recruit good AI researchers which limits not only the speed of development but also the democratization of this technology. And that, given the great potential of AI is a serious issue in and of itself.

AI deployment is very expensive, in part because of the need for great amounts of computing power needed. The maintenance of large data centers is pretty costly. A high cost creates a high barrier to entry for startups, researchers, and developers that are trying to get started in this space.

How Nebula AI addresses the problems of the AI industry

Democratizing AI computing and storage

NBAI lets people pay for distributed computing power on shared machines with their tokens. This solves a number of issues. The most apparent among those is the efficiency since in this system no idle resources are being paid for. That’s in part obtained by sharing the resources with other users. But that’s not the only advantage of decentralization.

Decentralized encrypted data storage

With NBAI no central organization has access to all your data. That is obtained by the combined usage of IPFS, multiple private keys for access control and data verification which makes sure the data cannot be tampered with. This way you can be sure that your data won’t be misused or even accessed by who shouldn’t have access to it.

AI engineer training center in Montreal

NBAI has established an AI training center in Montreal where people with a background in mathematics or programming can learn fundamentals about artificial neural networks and how they’re being used for machine learning, as applied to speech and object recognition, image segmentation, modeling language etc.

A blockchain for AI computing

Most of us already do know that blockchain mining consumes lots of electricity and computing power. Actually, Bitcoin mining consumes more electricity than Ireland and it has been predicted that this blockchain mining will account for 0.5% of worldwide electricity use by the end of 2018. What many people don’t know is that this computing power is used only for the purpose of securing the blockchain.

That is a really huge amount of computing power that could be put to better use. That being said, the inefficiency of Proof-of-Work based blockchains is beyond the scope of this article. What I wish to point out is that such blockchains create a distributed computing network which is already really efficient at what it is doing. Sure, there are ways to operate a blockchain with way less computing power using other consensus algorithms. Still, the amount of computing power obtained by those networks is quite remarkable.

That’s the case because miners themselves profit more if their nodes are efficient. What NBAI envisions is that such miners could actually perform AI calculations instead simple hash calculations in order to obtain tokens.

Another big advantage of this approach is that many GPU mining machines can be converted to NBAI AI computing machines. This can potentially accelerate the network growth because many miners hold potential future nodes of the network. Still, since building decentralized networks takes time, NBAI has deals in place with large-scale third-party data centers in Quebec. This will ensure the system will be operational immediately when launched.

NBAI system architecture

Helix (Until 2018 Q3)

The first Ethereum independent blockchain (and phase) of the NBAI project is called Helix. Proof-of-Work (Ethash algorithm) will be used to secure this blockchain. Using an independent chain has many advantages. For the most part, with its own chain, the project will suffer from fewer traffic delays and some fundamental underlying proprieties of the blockchain can be tailored specifically for the very peculiar needs of such a system.

That means that the Gas (transaction) cost will be different in order to motivate miners to get profit through AI calculations instead of traditional Proof-of-Work mining. The way that it will work for nodes is that they can obtain tasks from the task pool by smart contracts. Then, after they performed the task, they submit the result and receive the token rewards. Another fundamental propriety which will be altered is the mining difficulty. This will be done in order to increase the speed of generating blocks and adjust the token production.

Still, PoW is really inefficient and has a limited scalability. Also, nobody ever solved Proof-of-Work’s 51% attack vulnerability. Those are probably the main reasons why this consensus algorithm is only used in the first phase of the project.

Orion (2019 Q1 onwards)

A fundamental property of distributed computing is that the closer the distance between nodes, the lower the cost of communication and the higher the computational efficiency. This propriety is the basis for the new consensus algorithm which is being developed by NBAI: Proof-of-Group (PoG). In PoG consensus systems and token incentives are used to ensure both efficiency and security.

In the PoG system, there are two different kinds of nodes: work nodes and ledgers. The role of a work node is to compute artificial intelligence tasks. The ledger, in addition to normal calculation, can also be responsible for allocating subtasks to all work nodes in the area (called a virtual working group). The task results are then written onto IPFS. After that is done the completed contract is verified by the ledger.

Self-organized efficient network architecture

In order to ensure an efficient communication between nodes of the virtual working groups an algorithm which creates a self-organized network topography which is efficient has been developed. Here is how it works.

When a new work node joins the system, it searches for nearby nodes. If it finds nodes with fast response time it joins them and becomes one of the worker nodes of the virtual working group. If the node doesn’t find any nodes with an acceptable response time it elects itself as a ledger. Nearby nodes will have a faster response time and will work together under a single ledger that coordinates them. Such a system ensures the highest possible network efficiency and generates an efficient network design.

No 51% attack vulnerability

The working groups compose a ledger network which uses the Byzantine consensus system for the joint ledger. This solution ensures complete safety against 51% attacks (which PoW doesn’t) and higher efficiency. Such attacks recently had some pretty bad effects on some cryptocurrencies. The most notable example is Bitcoin Gold (BCG).

Nebula AI use cases

There are a lot of potential applications for a more efficient and privacy-conscious AI computing service. Some possible applications are biomedical imaging, protein structure calculation (a generating task), computational marketing and various kinds of analysis of big data like social media feeds.

What’s more, this project offers more than just potential to speculate about. The team has developed some functional demos which run on their testnet that can actually show us some examples of what the system is capable of. Those are the aforementioned Quant AI and the Sentiment Analysis DAI Apps.

Demos offered by Nebula AI

Quant AI

One demo that the NBAI team has developed to demonstrate the potential of the system that they are creating is called Quant AI. Quant AI is a DAI App on the NBAI testnet which predicts the Ethereum trading price. This tool analyzes time series and trains deep learning models based on AI algorithm to forecast real-time trends and implement automatic trading of cryptocurrencies.

Advanced AI trading price prediction is something that has been accessible only to few people so far and now thanks to this initiative will become widely available and will be developed further. That’s the potential of blockchain democratization applied to AI.

Sentiment Analysis

The sentiment analysis DAI App is a natural language processing DAI App developed by NBAI. This tool helps users classify the polarity of a given text and extract the attitude of the writer. It is currently used as a price prediction model for trading, evaluation of consumer inclination, online conversations positioning and content inclinations.

Social media are gold mines of public opinion on any given topics. Such data can be monetized in various ways amongst which predicting market movements is the most obvious one. An example of how this tool can be used is given by this sentiment analysis of the subreddits of the main cryptocurrencies (the example given has actually been obtained using a less accurate algorithm which isn’t based on an artificial neural network).


This is one of the projects that look promising from the get-go but only get better as you continue getting to know them more. AI is a huge industry which is currently booming and is still so new that has a lot of space for improvement and suffers from various issues. NBAI sure won’t solve all the problems that this space is facing right now but it is actually addressing some of them.

Speculative value

From a speculative point of view, their token is just as promising as their project in general. Computing power is constantly getting cheaper (both from a hardware cost and electricity consumption standpoint) so the amount of work that you will be able to get done with the same number of tokens is going to grow over time. At the same time, also the number of users willing to pay for such a service is probably going to grow drastically. That is also confirmed by the AI service market value estimates.

More AI applications are going to be developed over time and more AI applications become possible as the amount of processing power available increases. It is hard to imagine how the NBAI token could become worthless. Sure, there is always the possibility that the whole system fails for some reason but the presence of actually functional product demos on the testnet makes it appear way less likely for this project than for most other ICOs. The ICO concluded on 20th April with $5,874,054 gathered.

No investment is 100% safe

Still, this system is under development and a lot of things can go wrong (Cryptocurrency and ICOs are always really speculative and risky investments. The NBAI whitepaper actually explains it pretty well at the very beginning in the “Risk statement” section.

One thing worth pointing out is that the very presence of such a detailed risk statement is a big plus since it demonstrates responsibility on the team’s part. You should never trust a project that claims your investment will be 100% safe and guarantees returns. That being said, the risk statement still says the truth and you should only invest what you can afford to lose.

Another thing to keep in mind is that there are some other projects that bring AI to the blockchain. Sure, every one of them has its own strengths and weaknesses but there definitely is some overlap. So, to put it shortly there are two main things that can go wrong with this project:

  1. The system could fail or an unsurmountable issue could stop the development.
  2. Too much of the market could be lost to the competitors or could not be “taken” from the centralized counterparts.

Is EOS the Most Promising Cryptocurrency in Development?

EOS is a project who has drawn much attention to itself lately. In part because of the recent sudden increase in the value of its native token and its Weiss rating.

In this article, we will analyze the potential of the EOS project and its probable future. It is my personal opinion that this cryptocurrency is a serious contender for the title of “Most promising DAPP/smart contracts platform”.

What is EOS?

EOS is a project belonging to the same category as Ethereum (platform for DAPP and smart contracts) but substantially different. In fact, EOS seems to have two main objectives that it seeks to achieve through its development: Scalability and ease of use.


Scalability is the term used to refer to the number of transactions a blockchain is able to handle in a given period of time. A blockchain that can handle a large transaction load per second without any problems is called “scalable”. EOS faces this challenge mainly through two implementations: DPOS and interoperability between blockchains (achieved with the Dawn 3.0 upgrade).


DPOS, Distributed Proof Of Stake, is the consensus algorithm of EOS (Steemit and BitShares use the same algorithm, after all, they had the same technical director, Dan Larimer). This algorithm sacrifices a certain amount of decentralization for a big advantage in terms of scalability. In fact, in the worst-case scenario, it is estimated that a single native EOS blockchain will reach 1000 transactions per second. But, in reality, it is to be expected that these will initially be around 3000 and then increase as the protocol is updated. For comparison, Ethereum handles about 20 per second, Bitcoin mind about 7.

The price of this is that only the 21 so-called block producers can validate the blocks, which substantially reduces decentralization. This is not the most resilient or incensurable blockchain, but it is the most suitable for mainstream use on a large scale. In fact, unlike what many believe, EOS will not “kill” Ethereum. Of course, as I previously suggested, it will probably get a good slice of its market. But Ethereum will continue to have its own niche. In particular, ETH will thrive where immutability, security, and decentralization are of utmost importance.

The blocks on the EOS network are also generated every half second. This means that transactions will always be confirmed within a few seconds if not just one. On the Ethereum network, an average transaction on press time takes about a minute and a half to be confirmed with one block added to the blockchain every 10-19 seconds based on network congestion. The Bitcoin blockchain instead takes on average just under an hour and a half to confirm a transaction with a block added every 10 minutes.

EOS seems a very good long-term investment
EOS seems a very good long-term investment

Inter Blockchain Communication

The other, even more noteworthy, way in which EOS seeks to increase its scalability is communication between blockchains. This allows, according to the reports, two or more blockchains to communicate (and collaborate to manage a greater load than single chain could). Particularly noteworthy is the statement that this standard is as secure as are interactions between smart contracts on a single chain.

This means that a transaction on one chain becomes automatically available on another. The only disadvantage is that this becomes visible only after this transaction has been confirmed on the other chain (that should happen in under 3 seconds). This feature of EOS is the basis of the statement that EOS can handle unlimited transactions per second.

Ease of use

Another not to be underestimated feature of EOS is how much attention has been dedicated to making it easy to use. The system includes features such as humanly comprehensible addresses, password recovery systems or the lack of transaction fees (which allows you to interact with DAPPs without owning tokens). These, together with its speed, make it possible to interact with the blockchain without even knowing that what you are using is not just a normal website.

To understand what is described, just look at steemit. This social/blogging platform, although it has some peculiar features, doesn’t seem to have a blockchain and some tokens at its base at all. This is the kind of DAPPs that are going to be hosted on EOS.

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Airdrops for EOS hodlers

Airdrop has become now a typical buzzword that we hear in the blockchain industry with the intention of attracting attention. This term simply refers to the free distribution of tokens. Often this is done in order to draw attention to the project, for example by giving tokens to those who have participated in other ICOs, so that they look for the project from which they derive. Other times just to trigger network effects. But in the EOS ecosystem, Airdrops have a different motivation, which is why I have said in the past that this may be the best investment in the long term.

“What’s the reason?” is the question that spontaneously arises in the mind of any person with common sense. This is because everyone knows that you should never expect anything for free. The answer to this question brings us to our attention something that is actually even better news. has raised several billion dollars so far through the EOS ICO. These funds are intended to finance projects for which there will never be an ICO. In fact, more funds have already been announced for this purpose, including the USD 100 million joint venture between and the German Fintech incubator FinLab AG.

Projects financed by these funds, collected during the ICO, do not, therefore, need to finance themselves by selling their tokens. Their tokens are then distributed free of charge (hence as an airdrop) to all holders of EOS tokens. This means that investing in EOS is investing in a whole ecosystem in a much more direct way than investing in other similar projects (e.g. NEO or ETH). An analogy would be to buy ETH and consequently, in the coming months, receiving also the tokens of all the major projects realized on the platform for free.

Some Numbers

The EOS page on Coinmarketcap indicates that, with a total market capitalization of 10,590,855,420 dollars, this token is the fifth cryptocurrency by market cap. In fact, the latter has recently surpassed Litecoin (LTC) which has a market capital of 6,596,457,497 dollars (therefore now just over half that of EOS) at the time of printing. As far as price is concerned, EOS has grown by more than 1800% in less than a year (since July 2017) and then sustained a drop. (The graph renders the image previous to the drop in price.)


The features described above, once tested by real software have attracted a large number of investors. In fact, initially, the product has been subject to countless criticisms due to its ICO, which lasted nearly a year and will end in just a couple of days. But those who believed in the project when most accused it of being a scam enjoyed a low-price entry and substantial gains.


It should be considered that the value of the EOS token at this time is purely speculative. In fact, until the EOS network is launched in three days, the token is completely useless. Ten billion dollars is a very high estimate for a platform still in development. We can, therefore, draw two logical conclusions:

  1. The price of the token at this time is mostly linked to the enthusiasm due to the upcoming launch.
  2. Consequently, a price correction is underway.

It is a Bubble, But that’s Not an Issue

EOS seems a very good long-term investment. That said, like any investment in this space, it is subject to high risk. The reason for this is that the sector is immersed in a huge speculative bubble. It is not by chance that this is often compared with the dot-com bubble that burst at the beginning of the millennium.

Indeed, just like at the beginning of the millennium it is to be expected that the vast majority of companies in the sector will fail. But that bubble was also a primordial soup in which companies such as Google and Amazon developed, the stocks of which at the time were worth only a fraction of what they are valued nowadays. In the same way, this time too, we can expect that the revolutionary technology such as blockchain, just like the Internet did, will lead to the birth of companies of similar relevance. My opinion is that EOS may be one of them.

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Google Has Offered work to Ethereum’s Founder, Vitalik Buterin

An interesting offer

The offer is even more interesting than it appears at first glance. Before explaining the basis of this statement, however, it is better to review the information that is publicly available.

vitalik butterin google

In its original tweet, Vitalik did not hide the recruiter’s name, email address or profile image. It was a short e-mail, and a part of it was cropped out of the screenshot he posted. The translated text is: “I hope you’re fine and enjoying the weekend” and in the line below “Google makes sense for you now or in the near future”.  The tweet was then deleted, perhaps because of concerns about the privacy of the recruiter due to the uncensored screenshot.

That being said, only 41% of the survey respondents were in favor of the proposal received from Buterin. I, personally, would be very surprised if this offer was accepted. In particular, because Ethereum is developing rapidly and dynamically and remains among the most promising cryptocurrencies (according to many the most promising) and therefore offers great opportunities to its founder. However, if this proposal were to be accepted, the consequences on the price of ETH would surely not be slight ones. This is because Vitalik is a kind of frontman to the Ethereum project, a guide for the entire community.


Recently, however, Google has not shown a positive attitude towards cryptocurrencies and ICOs. In particular, it decided to prevent access to advertisements on its AdWords platform. During the same month, however, news emerged that Google is working on its own blockchain. Its goal is to provide cloud and transactional services.

The blockchain is well suited to improve the security of existing solutions offered such as Google Drive. It would, therefore, make sense to expect the founder of Ethereum to be responsible for the development of such a project. In addition, Google has invested in several other blockchain-based solutions, such as Ripple, LedgerX or Veem. In short, Google has shown great interest in the sector and not without good reason.

Google, in fact, like Facebook (which has created its own team dedicated to the development blockchain, not to mention the fact that they are already the first rumors about a facecoin) is a company that has the ability to make a mainstream cryptocurrency. Actually, thanks to its undoubted influence on the smartphone market, Google could be even more advantaged than Facebook is. In fact, this company has a number of unique possibilities offered by controlling an entire ecosystem of operating systems and services in which it could integrate its blockchain.

Google’s advantages

In fact, Google could not only integrate blockchain authentication within its services or use it for the storage of the most sensitive data (which would be a very advantageous step given the recent scandals regarding Facebook). It would also be possible to integrate a wallet directly into the Android operating system, theoretically also a full node or even formulate specific hardware requirements to ensure efficiency and security. Thus, making all future Android smartphones something similar to what is being designed by Huawei, Sirin Labs or HTC. Such a scenario would make mass adoption much faster