Explainer: What is a Global Minimum Tax and How Could it Affect Companies, Countries?

By Leigh Thomas and David Lawder

Yellen said on Monday that she is working with G20 countries to agree on a global minimum, which she said could help end a “30-year race to the bottom on corporate tax rates.”

WHY A GLOBAL MINIMUM TAX?

Major economies are aiming to discourage multinational companies from shifting profits – and tax revenues – to low-tax countries regardless of where their sales are made. Increasingly, income from intangible sources such as drug patents, software and royalties on intellectual property has migrated to these jurisdictions, allowing companies to avoid paying higher taxes in their traditional home countries.

With a broadly agreed global minimum tax, the Biden administration hopes to reduce such tax base erosion without putting American firms at a financial disadvantage, allowing them to compete on innovation, infrastructure and other attributes.

The Trump administration took a first stab at capturing revenues lost to tax havens with a U.S. corporate offshore minimum tax in 2017. The “Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income,” or GILTI, tax rate was only 10.5% – half the domestic corporate tax rate.

WHERE ARE INTERNATIONAL TAX TALKS?

The Paris-based Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has been coordinating tax negotiations among 140 countries for years on two major efforts: setting rules for taxing cross-border digital services and curbing tax base erosion, with a global corporate minimum tax part of the latter.

The OECD and G20 countries aim to reach consensus on both fronts by mid-year, but the talks on a global corporate minimum are technically simpler and politically less contentious.

The minimum tax is expected to make up the bulk of the $50 billion-$80 billion in extra corporate tax that the OECD estimates companies will end up paying globally if deals on both efforts are enacted.

HOW WOULD A GLOBAL MINIMUM TAX WORK?

If countries agree on a global minimum, governments could still set whatever local corporate tax rate they want. But if companies pay lower rates in a particular country, their home governments could “top-up” their taxes to the agreed minimum rate, eliminating the advantage of shifting profits to a tax haven.

The Biden administration has said it wants to deny exemptions for taxes paid to countries that don’t agree to a minimum rate.

The OECD said last month that governments broadly agreed already on the basic design of the minimum tax although the rate remains to be agreed. International tax experts say that is the thorniest issue.

Other items still to be negotiated include whether industries like investment funds and real estate investment trusts should be covered, when to apply the new rate and ensuring it is compatible with the 2017 U.S. tax reforms aimed at deterring tax-base erosion. (Graphic: Statutory corporate tax rates in OECD countries, https://graphics.reuters.com/OECD-TAX/oakpeldjxvr/chart.png)

WHAT ABOUT THAT MINIMUM RATE?

The Biden administration wants to raise the U.S. corporate tax rate to 28%, so it has proposed a global minimum of 21% – double the rate on the current GILTI tax. It also wants the minimum to apply to U.S. companies no matter where the taxable income is earned.

That proposal is far above the 12.5% minimum tax that had previously been discussed in OECD talks – a level that happens to match Ireland’s corporate tax rate.

The Irish economy has boomed in recent years from the influx of billions of dollars in investment from foreign multinationals, so Dublin, which has resisted European Union attempts to harmonize its tax rules for more than a decade, is unlikely to accept a higher minimum rate without a fight.

(Reporting by Leigh Thomas in Paris and David Lawder in Washington; Editing by Dan Burns and Leslie Adler)

Federal Reserve Inflation Fighting Tools

In the past, inflationary pressures were feared by financial market participants and this time is no different as some economists are worried that the Fed’s commitment to low rates will foster inflation. However, Powell countered these fears by saying he’s “very mindful” of the lessons from runaway inflation in the 1960s and ‘70s, but believes this situation is different.

“We’re very mindful and I think it’s a constructive thing for people to point out potential risks. I always want to hear that,” he said. “But I do think it’s more likely that what happens in the next year or so is going to amount to prices moving up but not staying up and certainly not staying up to the point where they would move inflation expectations materially above 2%.”

Powell further added that the Fed considers 2% inflation a healthy level for the economy while also giving the central bank breathing room for policy. Should inflation get out of control, Fed officials believe they have the tools to control it.

This article will explore some of the tools the Fed has at its disposal to combat rapidly rising inflation should it pose a threat to the economy.

Contents

Why Does the Federal Reserve Aim for Inflation of 2 Percent over the Longer Run?

According to Federal Reserve documents, the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) judges that inflation of 2 percent over the longer run, as measured by the annual change in the price index for personal consumption expenditures (PCE), is most consistent with the Federal Reserve’s mandate for maximum employment and price stability.

When households and businesses can reasonably expect inflation to remain low and stable, they are able to make sound decisions regarding saving, borrowing, and investment, which contributes to a well-functioning economy.

For many years, inflation in the United States has run below the Federal Reserve’s 2 percent goal. It is understandable that higher prices for essential items, such as food, gasoline, and shelter, add to the burdens faced by many families, especially those struggling with lost jobs and incomes.

At the same time, inflation that is too low can weaken the economy. When inflation runs well below its desired level, households and businesses will come to expect this over time, pushing expectations for inflation in the future below the Federal Reserve’s longer-run inflation goal. This can pull actual inflation even lower, resulting in a cycle of ever-lower inflation and inflation expectations.

If inflation expectations fall, interest rates would decline too. In turn, there would be less room to cut interest rates to boost employment during an economic downturn. Evidence from around the world suggests that once this problem sets in, it can be very difficult to overcome. To address this challenge, following periods when inflation has been running persistently below 2 percent, appropriate monetary policy will likely aim to achieve inflation modestly above 2 percent for some time. By seeking inflation that averages 2 percent over time. The FOMC will help to ensure longer-run inflation expectations remain well-anchored at 2 percent.

Furthermore, the Fed has repeatedly said it will keep short-term rates anchored near zero and continue its monthly bond-buying program until it sees not only a low unemployment rate but also a jobs recovery that is “inclusive” across income, gender, and racial lines.

Powell believes the Fed has the Tools to Manage Inflation

Generally speaking, we now know why the Federal Reserve wants to see inflation at 2%, but Powell and his policymakers want to allow inflation to move above this mandated level until he is confident the economy has fully recovered from the shock of the pandemic. This is what spooked investors in March, but they have since calmed down with stocks hitting record highs.

Powell’s confidence in his ability to fight inflation may be responsible for the sudden surge in demand in equity prices and the market’s seemingly acceptance of rising Treasury yields.

As inflation rises throughout 2021, there will be pockets of volatility because some investors will believe the Fed is behind the curve by leaving its current policy of low-interest rates and aggressive bond-buying unchanged.

However, should it suspect that inflation is getting out of hand, it usually turns to open market operations, the federal funds rate, and the discount rate to stem the inflationary surge.

Open Market Operations

The Fed’s first line of defense against runaway inflation is typically open market operations. In implementing this policy, it sells securities like Treasury notes to member banks. The move reduces bank capital, giving them less to lend. Essentially, it removes money from the economy. As a result, banks raise interest rates and that slows economic growth, dampening inflation.

Federal Funds Rate

The Federal Funds Rate is probably the most well-known of the Fed’s tools. It’s also part of its open market operations. It’s the interest rate banks charge for overnight loans they make to each other. This is a very easy tool for the Fed to manipulate. Its purpose to pull money from the economy and slow inflation.

Discount Rate

This is the interest rate the central bank charges member banks to borrow funds from the Fed’s discount window. Once again the process of raising rates removes money from circulation, thereby reducing the money available for loans and mortgages. This helps slow down economic growth or inflation.

Reserve Requirement

The most powerful tool at the Fed’s disposal is the Reserve Requirement. The Fed eliminated the reserve requirement, effective March 26, 2020. This occurred at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The last thing the Fed wanted during that critical time was for banks to be pulling money out of the economy.

Once the economy regains its footing and as inflation hovers at or over 2%, the Fed has the power to reinforce the reserve requirement rule that will force member banks to hold more capital in reserve. This is another tool that removes money from the economy, and thus trimming inflation.

Summary

Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell and other Fed policymakers recently voted to keep short-term borrowing rates steady near zero, while continuing an asset purchase program in which the central bank buys at least $120 billion of bonds a month. Despite this move, inflation continues to run below 2 percent.

Treasury yields have been rising rapidly for weeks because the market is expecting inflation to heat up, which could force the Fed to change policy sooner than expected. The Fed however says that won’t be enough to change policy that seeks inflation above 2% for a period of time if it helps to achieve full and inclusive employment.

While some economists fear the Fed is inviting risks to the economy by allowing inflation to run above the 2% mandate, Fed policymakers believe they have the weapons to control inflation and to make changes quickly enough to push inflation back to or below 2%.

What are NFTs? Evrything you Need to Know About Non-Fungible Tokens

These are essentially cryptographic assets on blockchain with unique identification codes and metadata. These codes and metadata make them individual and unique.

One characteristic of an NFT, therefore, is that it cannot be copied or duplicated.

An example of an NFT from the real world would be a piece of art, such as the Mona Lisa. While Leonardo Da Vinci is known for numerous pieces of art, there is only one Mona Lisa.

While you can trade one Litecoin for another, you can’t trade one Mona Lisa for another Mona Lisa.

For the world of blockchain, a key advantage of NFTs is that they cannot be copied. And so, unlike the Mona Lisa, NFTs can be bought and sold without the possibility of fraud.

In the art world, a lot of money is spent to authenticate pieces of work before being sold. An NFT does not need middlemen to ensure authenticity.

Table of contents

What is fungible vs. non-fungible?

According to the Cambridge Dictionary, fungible or fungibility means simply interchangeable. “This is a characteristic of most financial instruments and market assets.”

By contrast, non-fungible property/assets/funds are not easy to exchange or mix with other similar goods or assets.

In other words, stocks, Certificates of Deposits, Cryptos, etc. are fungible assets.

An example of a non-fungible asset would be land or even diamonds. While land is a simple one to classify, each individual diamond is also unique. Each diamond has a different cut, size, grade, and so forth and therefore can’t be interchangeable with another diamond.

How Are NFTs Created?

NFTs are very simple to create, unlike blockchains and cryptocurrencies.

A number of NFT market places allow users to freely create an NFT and no programming knowledge is required.

Market places that currently allow users to freely create NFTs include OpenSea, Raible, or Mintable.

Creating art NFTs is particularly popular and these market places cater for just that.

How do NFTs work?

NFTs are digital tokens that are on a blockchain ledger. Once created, the market then trades the NFTs across market places.

Once an NFT is created, there is a proof-of-ownership that must be stored securely in an NFT wallet.

It is the proof-of-ownership that is ultimately the tradeable and non-fungible asset.

Once created, the blockchain ledger records the NFTs and their unique identifying codes. The blockchain ledger then also records each sale and resale and ownership.

This not only prevents the copying of an NFT but also removes fraudulent claims of ownership or even claims over creation.

Why do NFTs have value?

This is simply a case of supply and demand. The key here is the supply side that drives up the value of NFTs. Since there is only one individual asset, high demand can lead to significant increases in value.

Taking the Mona Lisa as an example, experts estimate the value of the Mona Lisa at more than $800m. Had Leonardo da Vinci painted numerous Mona Lisa paintings to exactly the same quality, these would be fungible. Their value would also be significantly less than the single painting thought to be edging towards $1 billion.

As the NFT market expands, the number of NFTs are likely to increase significantly. At this stage, demand will likely become the key price dictator.

Market appetite will continue to dictate value. A unique NFT of interest versus one of little interest to collectors and investors will vary significantly in price.

For example, Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey recently tweeted a link to a tokenized version of his first-ever written tweet.

Bids have reportedly reached in excess of $2.5 million. Other Jack Dorsey tweets are unlikely to have a collectible value, however, even though each tweet is unique.

How do I buy or trade NFTs?

For those looking to buy or trade NFTs, identifying the right marketplace is the first step.

There are numerous market places at present that cater to different areas of the collectible world.

For instance, NBA Top Shot is a marketplace for those looking to buy video highlights. Cryptoslam! is a site that lists the largest market places by sales volume for those looking to enter the NFT space.

There is also Sorare, which is a fantasy soccer marketplace, where you can manage, and buy and sell virtual teams. At the time of writing, Sorare ranked fifth on the all-time sales list, with $24.41m in total sales.

CryptoPunks ranks 2nd on the all-time sales volume list has 10,000 uniquely generated characters. Each can be officially owned and proof of ownership is logged on the Ethereum blockchain.

While there are many market places, those wanting to purchase an NFT will need an NFT wallet in order to store any purchased NFTs.

There are a number of NFT wallet providers in the marketplace. As with cryptos, NFT holders must store-purchased NFTs securely. Hard wallets would be more secure, protecting NFT holders from hackers.

When it comes to purchasing NFTs, some market places support purchases with a credit card. Others, however, require purchases with Ethereum.

For Ethereum purchases you will need to fund your NFT marketplace account with Ethereum to proceed.

To purchase your NFT, most market places sell NFTs in an auction. You simply need to place your bid and wait until the conclusion of the auction.

If your bid was successful, your account would be debited and your NFT wallet credited with your newly purchased NFT.

What are the most expensive NFTs?

Of late, NFT market news has flooded the crypto and mainstream newswires. With tech-savvy investors looking to be first to market, there have been a number of eye-watering bids for NFTs.

The largest NFT market places ranked by sales volume (all-time) at the time of writing include:

  • NBA Top Shot: Total sales $386.55m.
  • CryptoPunks: Total sales $161.32m.
  • Hashmarks: Total sales $43.71m.

For a full list of the largest marketplace NFT sales over the last 24-hours, 7-days, 30-days, and all-time, visit Cryptoslam.io.

Here you can view sales over a specified time period, the price change over the specified time period, and the number of buyers and transactions.

Taking a look at NBA Top Shot, there have been a total of 2.46m transactions that have led to total sales of $385.56m.

What is NBA Top Shot?

An NBA-Dapper Labs collaboration, delivering an on-line platform for trading virtual basketball cards.

These all exist on the blockchain making them unique and impossible to copy. More importantly, for some, authentication is immediate.

With the added advantage of virtual tech, it’s not just virtual basketball cards that are drawing attention.

There are also “moments” that are selling for 6 figure sums. Moments are video clips of the more popular players from the NBA.

One LeBron moment reportedly sold for $208,000…

Looking at the numbers for the broader NFT market, the last 30-days has been headline-grabbing.

From the $385.56m total sales across NBA Top Shot, more than $300m came from the last 30-days.

Looking at individual NFT sales

Christie’s Auction sold Beeple NFT for a whopping $69.3m. This is by far the largest sale to date.

The next 4 largest NFT were the sales of CryptoPunk characters. Sale prices ranged from $7.6m for CryptoPunk #3100 to $1.3m for CryptoPunk #4156.

What is Dogecoin?

Dogecoin describes Dogecoin as “the internet currency”.

The Shibu Inu is a Japanese breed of dog that was popularized as an online meme. “Doge” is a Shibu Inu and Dogecoin’s friendly mascot.

Dogecoin’s Community members are referred to as Shibes.

As a true cryptocurrency, Dogecoin provides users with a completely anonymous, decentralized, and secure environment.

Dogecoin holders can use Dogecoin to buy goods and services or trade them for other currencies.

Holders are also known to use Dogecoin to “tip” fellow internet-goers who create or share great content.

Table of Contents

Who invented dogecoin?

Jackson Palmer and Billy Markus created Dogecoin.

Dogecoin was born as a concept in 2013 and launched in December 2013 by engineers Jackson Palmer and Billy Markus.

Before the creation of Dogecoin, the two engineers had reportedly never actually met in person.

How can I buy dogecoin?

There are multiple ways to obtain Dogecoin, including getting tipped on the Dogecoin community and mining them.

You can also buy and trade Dogecoin, however, on crypto exchanges that support Dogecoin.

There are numerous crypto exchanges that support the buying and selling of Dogecoin.

Based on 24-hour volumes, WenX Pro, Binance, and CoinDCX have the largest 24-hour Dogecoin/USDT trade volumes at the time of writing.

Other popular exchanges supporting the buying and selling of Dogecoin include:

When choosing a suitable exchange to buy Dogecoin, the trading volume must be among one of the key deciding factors.

Others factors

When selecting an appropriate exchange, there are also a number of other factors to consider. These include:

  • Jurisdiction: Ensure that you find an exchange that supports your jurisdiction and language.
  • Exchange security: When considering the cases of exchange hacks in the not too distant past, 2FA should be a minimum requirement if you plan to hold your Dogecoin on an exchange.
  • Exchange Capabilities: For those look for more than just buying and holding, access to trading indicators and risk management controls including stop loss would be a consideration.
  • Trade pairings: For those looking to purchase with fiat money, the option to deposit fiat or purchase with fiat money is important. Not all exchanges support crypto purchases with fiat money.
  • Exchange Fees: Fees do vary significantly across the exchanges. This becomes a greater consideration for those looking to buy and sell Dogecoin on a more frequent basis.
  • Platform customer support: It is always important to have access to customer support to assist with any issues.

When considering the above, WenX Pro has the largest 24-hour DOGE/USDT trading volume at $360.16m

A distant 2nd and 3rd, by volume, are Binance ($149.81m) and CoinDCX ($149.70m), according to Coinranking.com.

For many, Binance may be the preferred exchange simply for market position and the sheer size of its global network.

When trading cryptos, significant daily volatility means that liquidity must be a deciding factor to limit slippage.

Dogecoin Wallets

Before signing up to an exchange in order to purchase your Dogecoin, you will need a Dogecoin wallet.

To get started, simply:

  • Get a Dogecoin compatible wallet.
  • Buy some Dogecoin.
  • Use your Dogecoin.
  • Stay up-to-date.

From the Dogecoin homepage, you can download a Dogecoin wallet for desktop or smartphone.

For your desktop, you can select a wallet for Windows, OS X, or Linux.

We do recommend that you store all of your purchased Dogecoin within your personal Dogecoin wallet.

Once you have your Dogecoin wallet, sign up to a Dogecoin-supported exchange and purchase your Dogecoin.

<h2 “what”>What can I buy with dogecoin?

The main uses of Dogecoin are currently:

  • Purchasing goods and services.
  • Tipping across the Dogecoin community.
  • Donating to charities.

For those looking to purchase goods with Dogecoin, there are numerous merchants that accept Dogecoin.

Dogecoin holders can purchase a wide array of goods ranging from cars to precious metals.

One of the more prominent companies accepting Dogecoin is the U.S NBA franchise the Dallas Mavericks.

In early 2021, the Dallas Mavericks owner claimed to have done more than 20,000 #Dogecoin transactions. Mark Cuban’s NBA franchise had become the largest Dogecoin merchant in the world.

What is going on with it now?

Its rise to fame has led to a far wider acceptance of Dogecoin.

Across the U.S, CoinFlip announced in early 2021 that people could purchase Dogecoin at 1,800 ATMs across 46 states.

Through the early part of 2021, Dogecoin had hit the crypto news headlines as more famous members of the crypto community began to plug Dogecoin.

Unlike other cryptos, such as Bitcoin and Litecoin, there is an infinite number of Dogecoins. As a result, Dogecoin will not face the same supply and demand outlook as the likes of Bitcoin and Litecoin.

While the endless supply means that the upside for Dogecoin may not be as meteoric as Bitcoin’s, there are also benefits.

The endless supply does mean that Dogecoin is ideal for smaller transactions.

At the time of writing, DOGE stood at $0.0575. While well below the January 2021 all-time high of $0.1004, DOGE has managed to retain much of its 2021 gains.

The crypto newswires contributed to late January’s spike and the upside for the current year.

Year-to-date, Dogecoin was up by over 1,000%, with the Dogecoin Shibes looking for a return to $1 levels.

As the community grows and Dogecoin becomes more widely accepted, more plugs by the crypto elite would support a return to $1 levels.

What are the risks of investing in dogecoin?

As is the case with any crypto, the volatility alone means that investors must trade Dogecoin with care.

As previously mentioned, the other issue that Dogecoin holders face is the endless supply.

This means that any intrinsic value could be diluted as the crypto market gets flooded with more Dogecoin.

As Bitcoin and Litecoin gain market interest, their finite supply remains an allure that Dogecoin is unable to compete with. This leaves holders facing downward pressure as the broader market makes ground.

On the tech side, there have been no material changes to the Dogecoin blockchain in recent years. This means that Dogecoin could also become dated and fall behind its peers.

There have been reports of Dogecoin Shibes leaving the Dogecoin community in favor of more current platforms.

As things stand, the Dogecoin community has been key to delivering price support. The community has, in the past, raised funds to return monies to those who have been hacked.

Once the community begins to weaken, Dogecoin may lose ground without any blockchain enhancements.

Why is dogecoin so popular?

In the early years, Dogecoin’s almost instant popularity was attributed to the founders’ lightheartedness.

While a number of crypto communities were battling it out, Dogecoin was meant to be a joke.

More significantly, however, was undoubtedly the generosity of the Dogecoin Community.

Not only did the community raise funds for multiple charities and good causes but also raise funds to cover losses faced by hacked Dogecoin holders.

To this day, the Dogecoin Community remains integral to the ongoing success of Dogecoin and its continued popularity.

Celebs and Dogecoin

A number of crypto celebs have surfaced and 4, in particular, have plugged Dogecoin, contributing to its early-2021 surge to $1.

Elon Musk, Gene Simmons, Mark Cuban, and Snoop Dogg are perhaps the most famous of them all.

Tesla Motors CEO Elon Musk single-handedly drove Bitcoin to its current all-time high $61,699 and Dogecoin to its all-time high.

After Tesla Motors’s purchase of Bitcoin and its acceptance of Bitcoin as payment, the Dogecoin plug had hit in the midst of the crypto market frenzy

As more prominent crypto advocates plug the likes of Dogecoin, the markets will be looking for fresh highs.

Will CBDC be the Factor that Paves the Way Towards a New Economy?

How Will State-Backed Digital Currencies Shape the Global Economy?

With improved transparency, traceability, security, CBDCs help central banks in creating a more efficient economy.

As cryptocurrency adoption has significantly increased among retail investors, institutionals, and numerous traditional finance players, central banks have entered into a heated race to develop their own CBDCs.

According to a Bank of International Settlements (BIS) survey from last May, 65% of the polled central banks stated that they had actively researched CBDCs. And multiple governments are well beyond the decision-making and research stages.

While the Bahamas have launched the digital sand dollar last October as the world’s first CBDC, China has emerged to be a leader in this field among major economies, conducting extensive pilots and preparing a draft law for its digital yuan project.

Sweden’s Riksbank has also been actively testing its e-krona CBDC, with its central bank recently announcing a one-year extension for the project. The Scandinavian nation’s government has already started reviewing whether to implement the digital currency expecting to complete it by November 2022.

CBDCs have become a top priority for central banks that had been previously hesitant about digital currencies. While the US published a research paper on central bank digital currencies last month, the EU announced the end of its public consultation on CBDCs in January.

Why Are Governments So Interested in CBDCs?

It’s no surprise that there is such a high demand for CBDCs among governments.

CBDCs combine most of the benefits of existing cryptocurrencies – such as the lack of intermediaries, enhanced transparency and traceability, secure and continuously operating networks, as well as instantaneous and cost-efficient payments – with increased government control and oversight.

For that reason, CBDCs allow nations to transform their existing financial and payment infrastructures to create a new, more efficient economy while maintaining their control over money issuance.

As state-issued and controlled digital assets tied to the value of national currencies, CBDCs use permissioned blockchain networks or another form of distributed ledger technology (DLT).

This allows the government to have full control over the network and the state-backed digital currency powering it and a deeper insight into its citizens’ finances.

While the latter could hurt users’ privacy, a government-controlled digital currency allows the state to crack down on illicit activities more efficiently. Examples of such include terrorism financing, money-laundering, and payments-related fraud, all of which have been presenting major problems for most nations worldwide.

In addition to a better taxation system and real-time insight into the current macroeconomic situation, CBDCs can finally offer a proper solution to the unbanked.

And we shouldn’t forget about cross-border payments, which have been traditionally going through obsolete and inefficient networks. Instead of slow and expensive transfers, international CBDC transactions feature (near-)instant settlements with inexpensive fees due to the lack of intermediaries.

The Future of CBDCs and Their Impacts on the Market

In 2021 and beyond, I expect the central bank digital currency race to further intensify, with multiple governments launching their CBDCs in the next few years.

However, even with several CBDCs on the market, the demand for decentralized cryptocurrencies will significantly increase among both retail and institutional investors in the coming years.

In addition to hedging against general market risks and inflation, crypto will provide a more private, trustless, and democratic alternative to the centralized and government-controlled networks of CBDCs.

For these reasons, even before state-backed digital currencies are launched, regulators will take action to provide more clarity around crypto, especially if more high net worth players join the space and put pressure on governments to act.

On the other hand, banks that have been the primary beneficiaries of the current financial system will face significant losses of revenue after the appearance of CBDCs.

Since central bank digital currency networks will operate without intermediaries, banks will lose out on most of the fees they currently collect from customers.

For that reason, they will be forced to innovate to minimize their losses and maintain their growth and market positions.

Creating a New World Economy

CBDCs have the potential to significantly improve finance while providing multiple benefits to both individuals and governments, such as making cross-border transactions faster and cheaper, combatting payments-related crimes, and controlling money issuance more efficiently.

With that said, there is still a lot of work to be done in this field.

But if it all works out, CBDCs could become the rails by which the world will move into a new economy.

Petr Kozyakov, co-founder and CBDO of the global payment network Mercuryo

What is NEM – The Full Guide

NEM

NEM is a blockchain written in Java, the double-layer blockchain supports multiple ledgers on its cryptocurrency layers. NEM’s ecosystem is built in such a way that seamlessly connects and transfers any type of digital assets between private and public blockchains. A collective growth mindset, made NEM to abdicate the POS consensus and introduce the POI. NEM is the world’s first practitioner of POI (Proof-of-Importance) consensus. Although it is similar to Proof-of-Stake which requires locking of certain amounts of coins in the ecosystem, there are several major differences.

The key difference between the POS and POI consensus is that in the POS consensus the amount of coins staked does matter, whereas a staker allocating 10% of the staked amount will be able to mine only 10% of blocks in the network. The POI consensus is used to determine network participants which are eligible enough to add blocks to the blockchain, in NEM’s ecosystem adding blocks to the blockchain is called “harvesting”.

In POS the more coins one stakes, the higher the reward and the reputation, however in POI mechanism, there are three key factors which build the reputation of the node: vesting (holding of 10000 XEM in the wallet), transaction partners, number of transactions within 30 days.

Symbol

Symbol is NEM’s project mainly focused on Enterprise. Symbol is a hybrid blockchain, which means that the blockchain is not fully accessible by anyone although it still bears features of a blockchain such as transparency, security and solidness. The hybrid blockchain is fully customizable and blockchain nodes can decide which transactions should be verifiable, who can participate in the blockchain and which transactions can be public.

The interoperability of public and private chains from what it seems like allow a cost-efficient, seamless data transfer between these two chains, avoiding third party bridges, which are used in interconnection of public and private chain protocols. Just like other blockchains built nowadays, Symbol is interoperable, which means no intermediaries needed for data transfer and token swaps between any blockchain and Symbol.

Source: Symbol Platform official website

As NEM commented, the launch of the mainnet of Symbol is scheduled on March 15, after a long 4 years of developments. On March 12, the project will pre-launch Opt-in and snapshot phase at a block height of 3,105,500.

The Opt-in means that any NEM’s proprietary token – XEM holders can receive Symbol’s proprietary token – XYM upon the mainnet launch. Basically what that means is that during the block height of 3,105,500 the system will read all wallets that have participated in the Opt-in and will allocate XYM to the Symbol account created during the Opt-in, which is exactly the same as the balance of one’s XEM wallet. In other words, hold your XEM in your NEM wallet (note: the wallet must be updated to the latest one), apply for Opt-in, create a Symbol account, for each 1 XEM in your balance you will receive 1 XYM, the XEM balance will remain intact, according to the announcement on NEM’s official website.

How is it going to impact XEM?

The Symbol is a promising project, it already made partners with some big names in the industry. The XYM token is already listed in Poloniex, Bitpanda, Gateio and others, and listing of the XYM is already on the task list of giants such as Binance, Huobi, Kucoin and 17 other exchanges. Some exchanges will support the snapshot of wallets for XYM allocation, among such are Binance, Kucoin, and recently announced Coinex.

While the excitement in this airdrop is heavy, XEM price seems to be silent and waiting for an alert to trigger. While the cryptocurrency market is in an uptrend today with Bitcoin gaining almost 4% today only according to the data of the cryptocurrency trading platform Overbit,

XEM/USD lies low like a leopard before a jump.

Source: TradingView

Based on the technical chart analysis, XEM/USD is currently in a corrective 5-wave ABCDE formation, which formed a symmetrical triangle. Based on the technical analysis, the chart pattern and the MACD indicator, XEM/USD will probably break the upper edge of the triangle and move upwards. The resistances to watch here are $0.7530 and $0.8000. Closing below the lower edge might lead to a drop to $0.6100 and $0.6000.

One should bear in mind that in most cases listings of new coins and airdrops led to massive sell-offs among the token investors. In case of NEM and Symbol such might not be the case or the so-called “dump” might not be as heavy as during the boom of ICO’s. The first reason is that in the emerging ecosystem of NEM, many might consider becoming network participants, the overall crypto market sentiment still remains bullish and tokens of cross-chain networks such as Polkadot are among the top investment appealing, enterprises are going blockchain and are integrating blockchain into their existing network another example of a project which allowed enterprises to connect their external data to blockchain is Chainlink, whose token LINK is along-side Polkadot’s DOT is an outperforming coin and still is appreciated by long-term investors. As the crypto-adoption is growing, more stores are tend to accept cryptocurrencies as payment, projects like Symbol will assist in bringing the crypto and blockchain to the IoT we got used to.

What Is The DXY Index?

Why is DXY Index important?

The US dollar is the most widely used and recognized currency worldwide. Central banks and governments hold US dollars as the primary exchange asset of their foreign exchange reserves. The dollar is the world’s reserve currency.

Reserve currencies are liquid, making them the foreign exchange instruments of choice for central banks and financial institutions for settling international transactions. Settling cross-border obligations with a reserve currency eliminates the need to exchange a country’s currency for each transaction.

The US dollar is the leading reserve currency because of the long history of political and economic stability in the US, the world’s leading economy. The dollar index (DXY) trades in the futures market on the Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) and the over-the-counter market between foreign exchange dealers.

The DXY reflects dollar strength or weakness and is a pricing mechanism for many commodities

Commodities are the raw materials that feed, clothe, power, and shelter the world. Production is a local affair in areas where the earth’s crust is rich in ores, minerals, metals, and energy. Agricultural products require suitable climates and available water supplies. Consumption is ubiquitous as people worldwide require essential commodities.

The pricing benchmark for most commodities is the US dollar because of its liquidity, stability, and role as the leading reserve currency. Local production costs and consumer prices may in various currencies, but wholesale supplies use the US dollar as the means of exchange. Over time, a rising dollar is typically bearish for commodity prices, while weakness in the reserve currency is a bullish factor. A strong dollar makes local production expenses fall, allowing foreign producers to sell output at lower prices and vice versa.

How is the DXY Index Calculated

The dollar index measures the US currency against other reserve currencies. Since the euro is the second-leading reserve currency, it has the highest weighting in the dollar index.

The dollar index is calculated according to the following formula of currency pairs:

USDX = 50.14348112 × EURUSD -0.576 × USDJPY 0.136 × GBPUSD -0.119 × USDCAD 0.091 × USDSEK 0.042 × USDCHF 0.036

Source: ICE

The six currencies that comprise the dollar index are freely traded foreign currency instruments from politically stable countries. There is no regularly scheduled rebalancing or adjustment in the dollar index. The ICE exchange monitors the index methodology. The index calculation occurs in real-time from a multi-contributor feed of the spot prices of the Index’s components.

The dollar index reached an almost two-decade high in March 2020

In March 2020, at the height of the risk-off price action caused by the global pandemic, the dollar index spiked higher. The US dollar’s role as a reserve currency makes it a safe-haven during turbulent market periods. Source: CQG

As the chart highlights, the ICE dollar index rose to a high of 103.96 in March 2020, the highest level in eighteen years since 2002. While the index exploded higher during the week of March 16, it turned lower the next week.

A falling knife led to price consolidation

The dollar index entered a bear market after reaching its highest level in nearly two decades. Source: CQG

As the weekly chart illustrates, the index moved from an eighteen-year high to its lowest level since February 2018 as it fell steadily through 2020 and into early 2021. The most recent low was at 89.165, only 1.015 above the early 2018 bottom, which was the lowest level since late 2014.

Interest rate differentials play a leading role in the value of one currency versus another. The short-term Fed Funds rate dropped to zero percent as the financial fallout from COVID-19 gripped markets, narrowing the rate difference between the dollar and the euro currency. As the yield benefits of the dollar declined, it sent the US currency lower.

Moreover, as Europe settled the Brexit issue in late 2020, it lifted the cloud of uncertainty hanging over the euro and British pound. The two currencies account for 71.2% of the dollar index.

After dropping from 103.96 to 89.165 or 14.2% in nine months, the dollar index has traded in a narrow range. Source: CQG

The daily chart shows that the ICE dollar index futures contract has traded between 89.165 and 91.605 in 2021, a narrow 2.44 range after falling 14.795 points. The index remains not far from the low, but it is consolidating and has yet to challenge its critical technical support level at the 88.15 low from February 2018.

Bearish sentiment is a dark cloud over the dollar for three reasons

The trend in the dollar index remains bearish since the March 2020 multi-year high. Three compelling factors are weighing on the dollar as it consolidated near the downside target at 88.15.

  • Short-term US interest rates remain only 50 basis points higher than short-term euro deposit rates. The narrow differential continues to support the euro as the yield difference collapsed from pre-pandemic levels.
  • The US Fed continues to inject record liquidity into the financial markets, increasing the US money supply. Government stimulus to stabilize the economy has caused the US deficit to soar over the $28 trillion level. The tidal wave of liquidity and tsunami of stimulus weigh on the dollar’s purchasing power.
  • The technical trend in the dollar remains lower. The trend is always your best friend in markets as it reflects the wisdom of the crowd. Crowds tend to make better decisions than individuals.

The dollar remains the world’s reserve currency, but that does not mean it will not continue to lose value versus other world currencies. A break below the February 2018 88.15 low in the dollar index could cause technical traders and speculators to pile in on the index’s short side. Meanwhile, central banks, monetary authorities, and governments tend to manage the foreign exchange market via coordinated intervention that provides stability by reducing volatility. Currency trends can last for prolonged periods. At the beginning of March 2021, the dollar’s trend remains lower.